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Emory University. JPN Hatch j a doing qualitative research in. Hatch, J. Doing qualitative research in education settings. LeCompte, M. Lincoln, Y.
Doing Qualitative Research in Education Settings
Ethical practices in qualitative research. Ginsberg Eds. Los Angeles: Sage. Marshall, C. Designing qualitative research 5th ed. In the volume he devoted a chapter to case study 'as a tool for doing evaluation', where 'evaluation is considered a particular type of research intended to assess and explain the results of specific interventions' p. He took a positivistic perspective and stated that case study, as an evaluation method, 'assumes a single objective reality that can be investigated by following the traditional rules of scientific inquiry' p.
Few evaluators in the UK would share his view that there is a 'single objective reality' to be investigated. Stake 3 distinguished between intrinsic case study and instrumental case study. By intrinsic case study he referred to research into a particular situation for its own sake and irrespective of outside concerns: 'The case is given.
We are interested in it, not because studying it we learn about other cases or about some general problem, but because we need to learn about that particular case. We have an intrinsic interest in the case. We will have a research question, a puzzlement, a need for general understanding, and feel that we may get insight into the question by studying a particular case This use of case study is to understand something else.
Case study here is instrumental to accomplishing something other than understanding [the particular case He went on to write: 'I am making the distinction Stake used a second Greek letter - iota - to draw attention to the importance of issues. But what are issues? The word suggests that we face a problematic situation, even a sense of fulmination.
Problems issue forth. Some problems are foci for our study. Issues are not simple and clean, but intricately wired to political, social, historical and especially personal contexts. All these meanings are important in studying cases. Issues draw us toward observing, even teasing out, the problems of the case, the conflictual outpourings, the complex backgrounds of human concern. Issues help us expand upon the moment, help us to see the instance in a more historical light, help us recognise the pervasive problems in human interaction.
Issue questions or issue statements provide a powerful conceptual structure for organising the study of a case. Stake Stake related the concept of issue to his two kinds of case study: 'One of the most important things to remember is that for intrinsic case study, theta is dominant; the case is of the highest importance.
For instrumental case study, iota is dominant; we start and end with issues dominant' p. Twenty years earlier, Adelman et at.
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Since Stake was a participant he may have led this part of the discussion. They wrote: Case study research always involves 'the study of an instance in action'. Yet lying behind the concept 'instance' lurk problems concerning the relationship of the 'instance' to the 'class' from which it is drawn. Case study research may be initially set up in one of two ways: i an issue or hypothesis is given, and a bounded system the case is selected as an instance drawn from a class Yin argued strongly for the importance of theory: 'For case studies, theory development as part of the design phase is essential, whether the ensuing case study's purpose is to develop or to test theory' Yin In terms of generalizing in order to create theory his book refers to 'statistical generalization' which is unsuitable for case studies and 'analytic generalization' which can be appropriate.
On the former he gave a firm warning: 'In statistical generalization, an inference is made about a population or universe on the basis of empirical data collected about a sample This would seem to be exactly what Cohen and Manion were advocating!
Doing Qualitative Research in Education Settings
Yin argued that analytic generalization is the appropriate method for generating theory from case study, by which he meant that 'a previously developed theory is used as a template with which to compare the empirical results of the case study. If two or more cases are shown to support the same theory, replication may be claimed' Yin Adelman et al.
The second kind is from case-bound features of the instance to a multiplicity of classes e. Stenhouse, in his presidential address to the British Educational Research Association in , with typical farsightedness described the coexistence of two 'cloven heads' in educational research. He said that he would 'try asserting' that 'the most important distinction in educational research at this moment is that between the study of samples and the study of cases' Stenhouse 2.
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He expected both to lead to generalization. He distinguished between predictive generalization and retrospective generalization. Predictive generalization is that which arises from the study of samples and is the form in which data. Retrospective generalization is that which can arise from the analysis of case studies and is the form in which data are accumulated in history: in Yin's terms this is 'analytic generalization'. Stenhouse was concerned about teachers' classroom judgements and earlier had noted that, 'while predictive generalisations claim to supersede the need for individual judgement, retrospective generalisations seek to strengthen individual judgement where it cannot be superseded' Stenhouse Stake expressed worries about generalization - 'Case study seems a poor basis for generalization The real business of case study is particularization' - and then invented a new range of terminology about it.
He suggested the term petites generalisations for general statements made within a study - for example that a particular child responds repeatedly in the same way to a particular situation. And he recognized that grandes generalisations, meaning general statements about issues of which the case is one example, can be modified by the findings of the particular case.
Instead of making grandes generalisations, Stake argued for researchers drawing from their research conclusions in the form of assertions which later he called 'propositional generalizations'.
On the basis of observations and other data, researchers draw their own conclusions. Erickson called them assertions, a form of generalization' Stake 9. These assertions, he noted, will often be petites generalisations i.
Doing Qualitative Research in Education Settings - J. Amos Hatch - Google книги
He went on to discuss how research data are interpreted in the form of assertions and reflected on how researchers may fail to make clear the speculative and tentative nature of their assertions. We do not have adequate guides for transforming observations into assertions - yet people regularly do it The logical path to assertions often is apparent neither to reader nor to researchers themselves For assertions, we draw from understandings deep within us, understandings whose derivation may be some hidden mix of personal experience, scholarship, assertions of other researchers.
It will be helpful to the reader when such leaps to conclusions are labelled as speculation or theory, but researchers often do not.
Stake 9, 12 Stake 12 was very gentle when he castigated fellow researchers for overstating their findings, but the importance of this paragraph is ignored at our peril:. It is not uncommon for case study researchers to make assertions on a relatively small database, invoking the privilege and responsibility of. To draw so much attention to interpretation may be a mistake, suggesting that case study work hastens to draw conclusions.
Good case study is patient, reflective, willing to see another view of the case. An ethic of caution is not contradictory to an ethic of interpretation. What beautiful language! Stake introduced in with Trumbull the term 'naturalistic generalization'. By this they meant 'conclusions arrived at through personal engagement in life's affairs' Stake Here they were using the term 'generalization' to refer to the learning processes through which we individually acquire concepts and information and steadily generalize them to other situations as we learn more.