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Table of Contents for: The Little Ice Age : how climate made hi
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Little Ice Age - Wikipedia
Sediment cores in Bransfield Basin, Antarctic Peninsula, have neoglacial indicators by diatom and sea-ice taxa variations during the Little Ice Age. Limited evidence describes conditions in Australia. In the north, evidence suggests fairly dry conditions, but coral cores from the Great Barrier Reef show similar rainfall as today but with less variability.
A study that analyzed isotopes in Great Barrier Reef corals suggested that increased water vapor transport from southern tropical oceans to the poles contributed to the Little Ice Age. On the west coast of the Southern Alps of New Zealand , the Franz Josef glacier advanced rapidly during the Little Ice Age and reached its maximum extent in the early 18th century, in one of the few cases of a glacier thrusting into a rainforest. Sea-level data for the Pacific Islands suggest that sea level in the region fell, possibly in two stages, between and This was associated with a 1.
Tree-ring data from Patagonia show cold episodes between and and from to , contemporary with the events in the Northern Hemisphere. In , another expedition noticed that the glacier reached the lagoon and calved into large icebergs. Hans Steffen visited the area in , noticing that the glacier penetrated far into the lagoon. Such historical records indicate a general cooling in the area between and "The recognition of the LIA in northern Patagonia, through the use of documentary sources, provides important, independent evidence for the occurrence of this phenomenon in the region.
Scientists have tentatively identified seven possible causes of the Little Ice Age: orbital cycles ; decreased solar activity ; increased volcanic activity; altered ocean current flows ;  fluctuations in the human population in different parts of the world causing reforestation, or deforestation; and the inherent variability of global climate. Orbital forcing from cycles in the earth's orbit around the sun has, for the past 2, years, caused a long-term northern hemisphere cooling trend that continued through the Middle Ages and the Little Ice Age.
The rate of Arctic cooling is roughly 0. There is still a very poor understanding of the correlation between low sunspot activity and cooling temperatures. In a paper, Miller et al. Throughout the Little Ice Age, the world experienced heightened volcanic activity. The ash cloud blocks out some of the incoming solar radiation, leading to worldwide cooling that can last up to two years after an eruption. Also emitted by eruptions is sulfur , in the form of sulfur dioxide gas. When it reaches the stratosphere , it turns into sulfuric acid particles, which reflect the sun's rays, further reducing the amount of radiation reaching Earth's surface.
A recent study found that an especially massive tropical volcanic eruption in , possibly of the now-extinct Mount Samalas near Mount Rinjani , both in Lombok , Indonesia , followed by three smaller eruptions in , , and did not allow the climate to recover. This may have caused the initial cooling, and the —53 eruption of Kuwae in Vanuatu triggered a second pulse of cooling. Other volcanoes that erupted during the era and may have contributed to the cooling include Billy Mitchell ca.
Another possibility is that there was a slowing of thermohaline circulation. Some researchers have proposed that human influences on climate began earlier than is normally supposed see Early anthropocene for more details and that major population declines in Eurasia and the Americas reduced this impact, leading to a cooling trend. William Ruddiman proposed that somewhat reduced populations of Europe, East Asia, and the Middle East during and after the Black Death caused a decrease in agricultural activity. He suggests reforestation took place, allowing more carbon dioxide uptake from the atmosphere, which may have been a factor in the cooling noted during the Little Ice Age.
Dull and Nevle calculated that reforestation in the tropical biomes of the Americas alone from accounted for net carbon sequestration of Pg . Brierley conjectured that European arrival in the Americas caused mass deaths from epidemic disease, which caused much abandonment of farmland, which caused much return of forest, which sequestered greater levels of carbon dioxide.
It has been speculated that increased human populations living at high latitudes caused the Little Ice Age through deforestation. The increased albedo due to this deforestation more reflection of solar rays from snow-covered ground than dark, tree-covered area could have had a profound effect on global temperatures.
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Spontaneous fluctuations in global climate might explain past variability. It is very difficult to know what the true level of variability from internal causes might be given the existence of other forcings, as noted above, whose magnitude may not be known.
tessitabes.tk One approach to evaluating internal variability is to use long integrations of coupled ocean-atmosphere global climate models. They have the advantage that the external forcing is known to be zero, but the disadvantage is that they may not fully reflect reality. The variations may result from chaos -driven changes in the oceans, the atmosphere, or interactions between the two. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the most recent period much colder than present and with significant glaciation, see Last glacial period. A period of cooling after the Medieval Warm Period that lasted from the 16th to the 19th century.
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Main article: Milankovich cycles. Main article: Solar variation.
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